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  1. Abate Animal Heat Stress in Hot Weather

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/AEX-151

    convective, radiative and evaporative heat transfer processes such as touching cool surfaces, exposure to high ... greater than 50 percent. Table 1 summarizes the body temperatures and comfort zones (surrounding ... Temperatures Comfort Zones Layers 105–109.4°F 55–70°F Pigs 101.6–103.6°F 50–70°F Cows 98–102.8°F 40–60°F Figure ...

  2. Interpreting a Soil Test Report

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/agf-0514

    suitability to grow a chosen crop. Phosphorous and potassium soil test levels help us know if fertilizer is ... values is needed if they are not reported as ppm using a Mehlich 3 soil test. Soil test values reported ... in pounds per acre are converted to ppm by dividing pounds per acre by 2. If phosphorus soil test ...

  3. Septic Tank: Soil Treatment System

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/aex-743

    not served by a public sewer must treat and disperse wastewater on the lot. Septic tanks with soil ... settable and floatable solids from the wastewater to protect the soil from clogging. The soil under the ... groundwater or surface water.   Septic tank soil treatment systems require a suitable soil depth of at least ...

  4. Freezing and Canning Venison

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/hyg-5367

    reducing the risk of food borne illnesses caused by pathogens such as E.coli, Salmonella, and Toxoplasma. ... between 34 F and 37 F from seven to 14 days for the process. DO NOT AGE meat harvested during warm weather ... should avoid eating meat from deer and elk that look sick or test positive for chronic wasting disease.” ...

  5. The Gastrointestinal Tract of the Horse

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/1022

    in fat digestion. Amazingly, horses can digest and absorb relatively high levels of fat in their ... (target 2 g/kg BW) Kg Lb Traditional sweet or pelleted feeds “high starch” 50–65 < 1.5–2 < 3.3–4.4 ... Once swallowed, the food passes through the pharynx—a short, funnel-shaped, muscular tube between the ...

  6. Drones for Spraying Pesticides—Opportunities and Challenges

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/fabe-540

    likely to cause a significant level of soil compaction resulting in reduced crop yield. Spot spraying, ... increasing interest in drone spraying and the high level of public demand for relaxation of current rules and ... data points: soil characteristics (type, moisture content, and nutrient content) location of drainage ...

  7. Secondary Injury Prevention: Understanding Concussions

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/AEX-981.11-11

    concussions with athletics or sporting events, but due to the nature of the work, farmers are at a high risk ... a concussion. Additional risk factors include working with livestock, working with heavy tools and equipment, ... fall Preventing a Concussion To reduce the risk of head trauma and prevent a concussion consider these ...

  8. Selecting the Right Type and Size of Nozzles for Effective Spraying in Orchards and Vineyards

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/fabe-534

    nozzles are some of the least expensive components of a sprayer, they hold a high value in their ability ... help determine droplet size, affecting both target coverage and the risk of spray drift. Nozzles come ... (a different color for each flow rate) which avoids the risk of unintended mixing of different nozzle ...

  9. Meat Goat Production and Budgeting

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/14

    the herd). Kiko goats (weighing roughly twice the weight of feral goats) are capable of high levels of ... improved type. The Boer goat has a good conformation with high growth and fertility rates. In the late ... United States from Australia and New Zealand. A mature Boer buck weighs between 240 and 300 pounds, and ...

  10. Developing Phosphorus and Potassium Recommendations for Field Crops

    https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/AGF-515

    + (0.05 x CEC))] + (YP x CR) + 20 CL is the critical level (100 ppm at a CEC of 10), STL is the soil test ... test results are based on soil calibration studies that correlate soil test levels to crop yield ... crop (buildup stage). Once soil test values reach the critical soil test level, a maintenance approach ...

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